The Neolithic period was a time of global agricultural revolution marking the beginning of human settlements and more rapid population growth. Wild grasses were among the first widely domesticated plant species, and they were bred to produce crops such as wheat, corn, sorghum, and varietal millets. In Africa, sorghum and a range of millets including pearl millet, finger millet, teff, fonio, and guinea millet were developed, and they remain important staples for hundreds of millions of people hence they developed several millstones and hand tools which were early mortars, pestles, and grinders, and they were used to pound and mill African cereals. Two round stones one stationary, the other rotating above it ground grains such as sorghum, teff, and pearl millet into flours purposed for multiple gastronomic uses.
Sorghum is a cereal grain that grows in both subtropical and semiarid regions. The impressive grain was first cultivated in Northeastern Africa, with evidence of domesticated species found at archeological sites near the eastern Egypt-Sudan border dated 8000 BCE. Sorghum, because of its caloric and nutritional content, was invaluable for Neolithic and Iron Age agricultural societies of the eastern Sahel. It then spread west across the Sahelian belt to the Niger River Basin, adapting to a range of ecological environments and leading to its cultivation in all regions of the continent, where it continues to be a vital and versatile cereal. Sorghum is paired with pearl millet to make Sahelian couscous. It is also pounded into flour used to make leavened bread and dumplings and is essential for brewing beer and making porridges. Porridge, which can be made with both fermented and unfermented sorghum, is an important breakfast throughout the continent. The filling meal provides carbohydrate energy packed with essential fatty and amino acids.
Teff is an annual cereal grain indigenous to Ethiopia and Eritrea. For thousands of years, it has been the region’s staple, especially in Western Ethiopia, where it accounts for two-thirds of consumed dietary protein. The nutritious grain is also loaded with iron, fiber, calcium, and magnesium. Evidence of domesticated teff species dates back as far as 3350 BCE, when seminomadic groups found the tiny grain well suited for carriage across great distances. This ancient cereal is most commonly ground into a flour used to make injera, a traditional fermented flatbread central to Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. Injera is consumed in spiritual and cultural ceremony and in daily meals. The spongy bread functions as a large plate upon which meat and vegetable stews (called wats or wots) are served. Torn pieces of injera also function as a sort of edible cutlery used to scoop up main and side dishes.
In some of the world’s driest regions, pearl millet is among the most important cereals for food security. Domestication began some four thousand years ago in Northern Mali, where the variety adapted particularly well and became the region’s most productive cereal grain. Cultivation spread east across the Sahel to Sudan, with evidence of crop domestication in the east as early as 2 BCE. Pearl millet is used in traditional dishes throughout the continent. Like sorghum, it is used to make fermented and unfermented porridges as well as beer and wine. Pearl millet is a key ingredient in the preparation of couscous, pap, and tô starches that serve as bases for meals and vessels for stews and sauces. It is also pounded into flour used to make breads, fritters, and sweet deserts. High in protein, fiber, and the amino acid lysine, pearl millet flour is commonly blended with other flours, such as corn or cassava, depending on desired taste and texture.